An Excel workbook, Nutritional Response Determination Optimization (NuRDO). has been developed to simulate the optimal number or nutrient levels and replicates per level when planning nutritional requirement studies. With NuRDO, researchers can simulate data from what they think is the real shape of the response curve. They can then run up to 1,000 simulated experiments to see the combination of levels and replications that minimize the standard error or the requirements and other parameters for the broken-line models. SK and hyperbolic models. For example, consider the BLL model with a "true" requirement (REQ) of 5.2, a maximum of 99 units, a rate constant of 18.6 and a CV of 10%:For 5 input levels and 10 reps per level, the estimated REQ ± SD is equal to 5.196±0. 106, for 10 levels & 5 reps each, the REQ is 5.231±0 .157. The workbook can be used in this manner to determine the best combination of levels and reps to improve the chances or getting the best results possible from experiments.
New feed ingredients are evaluated and introduced to the feed industry every year. The evaluation process is necessary and includes feeding birds different levels of the test ingredient to estimate the maximum safe level (MSL). The MSL is usually estimated with a multiple range test, ignoring the fact that this test is inappropriate for this type of feeding trials where the independent variable is continuous. This paper describes the use of the Maximum Ingredient Optimization Workbook (MIOW) in estimating the MSL and determining the optimal combination or ingredient levels and replications for most efficient experimental design of future feeding trials. The MIOW calculates the results and the related descriptive statistics (SD, SE, Cl, and R2) based on simulation and non-linear regression models (broken-line linear and broken-line quadratic models).
Pine shavings are the most popular bedding material used in poultry houses. Due in part to the expansion of the poultry industry, pine shavings are in short supply, and alternative bedding materials are being tested. Giant miscanthus grass (GMG) is one such material. GMG is a perennial grass that is dried and chopped into one-inch pieces for bedding. When compared to pine shavings, GMG is a good option for bedding material in poultry houses.
A good pasture and forage program can provide quality feed and normally will be the most efficient and economical means of providing a substantial part of equine rations. In Georgia, we are fortunate to have a mild climate, soils suitable for producing forages and a good selection of highly productive forage species. With careful planning and good management, adequate grazing can be supplied for up to 10 months of the year in most areas of the state. To many producers, the term "horse pasture" denotes grazing management and forage crops unique to horses. This is not the case at all. Because the horse is a herbivore, most forage crops commonly used for cattle can also be used to provide grazing for horses.
Profitable cattle marketing means producing the most profitable calf, selling through the most profitable market outlet and pricing at the most profitable time. Unfortunately, most cow-calf producers simply sell their calves. Marketing means choices on how or what to put on the market, where to market and when to price. The first step in becoming a cattle marketer is to recognize all your alternatives and evaluate each in light of potential cost and returns, selecting the most profitable rather than the most convenient alternative.
Many retained ownership programs offer producers the opportunity to receive a level of data from the feed-yard and packing plant that is rarely available after those animals leave the farm. Producers can use this information to make genetic changes in their herd to better the marketability of their calves. However, before this information can be utilized, producers must understand what these terms mean. The terminology might be slightly different on various reports, but the common ones used for herd improvements are discussed below.
To have a successful equine breeding program, producers must successfully manage animals both pre- and post-breeding to ensure delivery of a healthy foal while maximizing the health of the mare. The following information is designed give a basic understanding of how to identify pregnant mares, to outline major events in pregnancy development, and to identify some primary issues that can cause complications in pregnant mares.
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), commonly referred to as “Rednose,” is a disease resulting from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1). The detriment of the disease, as well as the positive benefits vaccination can have on a reproductive program, needs to be on the forefront of a producer's herd health program.
Properly managed ponds supply an abundance of fish for recreation and nutrition. Stocking methods and catch rates are used to keep pond balance. Liming and fertilization recommendations for ponds in Georgia are important when planning fish harvest goals. A variety of fish species for pond stocking are discussed in this publication. Methods to improve pond balance, including fish population renovation, are also presented for consideration as part of a management plan. This publication is primarily for Cooperative Extension Agents and fish pond owners and was written in an effort to consolidate currently accepted pond management methods.
Financial data for the year 2005 were collected from participating dairy farms and screened for completeness and validity. Each dairy farm then received a benchmark report detailing its financial results compared to the average results for the other participants and the six dairy farms with the highest net farm income per cwt. This benchmark report is discussed with the dairy farms to identify challenges and opportunities for improvement. This publication is a summary of the financial performance of the dairy farms that participated in 2005. It is intended for general use by dairy farmers, the allied industry, government, and educational professionals.