Biosecurity refers to procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing organisms in poultry flocks. Because of the concentration in size and location of poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, it is imperative that poultry producers practice daily biosecurity measures.
Fish ponds may experience a loss of oxygen at any time of the year, depending on the weather and amount of nutrient enrichment the pond has received; however, most oxygen depletions occur in warm weather and usually follow a period of cloudy, overcast conditions. Low oxygen concentration in pond water means stress and possibly death for the pond fish. When fish die from low oxygen, there can be serious financial consequences for commercial fish operations; for example, largemouth bass, bream and grass carp can be worth more than $3,000.00 per acre. Therefore, pond owners should consider a plan to provide aeration for their ponds before oxygen depletions occur.
Poultry production facilities must deal with the disposal of farm mortalities on a daily basis. Death loss in animal production is an unfortunate reality that requires appropriate handling to prevent the spread of disease, the potential for odor and pest problems, and the possible contamination of surface and ground water. Each disposal method has advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the method used, Georgia law requires disposal of dead poultry within 24 hours of death or discovery.
Quality of chicks, feed and water are all of great concern to broiler producers, but quality of litter in broiler houses is seldom given sufficient emphasis. This is unfortunate because birds are in continuous contact with litter. Litter conditions significantly influence broiler performance and, ultimately, the profits of growers and integrators. Litter is defined as the combination of bedding material, excreta, feathers, wasted feed and wasted water.
Conflict prevention measures can be both tangible and intangible in nature. Communication skills and disseminating information may be as important as minimizing odors or pests through improved management practices. The following are practices and suggestions that can help poultry farmers maintain or improve neighbor relations. Proper manure handling practices are foremost points to consider in avoiding potential nuisance complaints or court action.
Disease prevention is much less stressful and costly than disease control and recovery. Biosecurity measures are a critical component of disease prevention. Use this list to rate your disease prevention practices and preparedness.
Mortality disposal following a natural disaster or catastrophic disease event can become a major challenge for poultry producers. Disposal decisions must balance animal health goals with those of environmental protection and safeguarding public health. In the event of catastrophic disease, humane destruction of infected or exposed poultry and proper disposal is needed to stop further spread of infectious organisms. Establishing pre-emptive culling and controlled slaughter programs for suspect cases may be feasible and can assist in limiting the potential spread of disease. At times healthy birds may need to be slaughtered prematurely to create a safe buffer zone.
Poultry litter is a mixture of poultry manure, feathers, wasted feed, and bedding material that contains nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and other nutrients essential for plant growth. Poultry litter can vary considerably in nutrient content due to bird type, feed composition, bedding materials used, clean-out frequency, storage and handling practices, use of litter amendments, and other factors. Therefore, sampling poultry litter to obtain a nutrient content analysis is an important step for managing manure nutrients appropriately.
Bit selection is a critical area of consideration for riders of all disciplines and levels. Bit selection is often regulated by various breed and/or horse show associations. For many horse enthusiasts, lack of knowledge about bit types and functions, as well as common misconceptions held in the horse industry, can make choosing an appropriate bit a difficult process.
This publication describes Microsoft Excel workbooks designed to calculate the effects of dividing ingredients into above- and below-average portions (2-bin method) and the costs of providing nutrients at specified confidence levels.