Lime mud is a by-product produced in pulp mills as part of the process that turns wood chips into pulp for paper. The pulp mill cooks wood chips with sodium hydroxide to extract the wood fiber used to make paper from the lignin that binds the wood together. During this process, sodium hydroxide is converted to sodium carbonate. The pulp mill than adds calcium oxide, also known as quicklime, to convert the sodium carbonate back to sodium hydroxide in order to use it again. In the process, calcium carbonate is formed.
Fertilizer injectors are devices used to apply water-soluble fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators, wetting agents and mineral acids during crop production. They are a vital part of modern greenhouse or nursery operations. Despite the advantages, many growers have had at least one experience with a compromised, damaged or even ruined crop where the cause was traced to a malfunctioning injector. Just like other mechanical devices, proper and frequent maintenance and calibration are crucial steps to ensure optimal injector performance and, thus, healthy crops.
For any business or institution producing food waste, this organic material can be easily decomposed into high quality compost. As landfill space and openings decrease, there will undoubtedly be more pressure to compost food waste along with all organic waste. As tipping fees increase and it becomes prohibitively more expensive to landfill, composting may be an attractive financial alternative as well as a value-added opportunity.
As farmers and farm advisers, you make many management choices during a growing season. For example, you may have to decide which cultivar to plant, which herbicide to use, how frequently to apply a fungicide, and what rate of nematicide to use. Often the information needed to make the best decision is available to you, but when it is not available you can frequently compare the options by conducting your own small experiments. Your experiments can be just as valid as any university study if you follow a few important principles of experimental design.
Drip irrigation is an important component of vegetable production systems in Georgia. Drip irrigation is more desirable than other irrigation methods for several reasons. Two important advantages are (1) water conservation and (2) potentially significantly improving fertilizer management. Fertigation is the timely application of small amounts of fertilizer through drip tubes directly to the root zone. Compared to conventional ground application, fertigation improves fertilizer efficiency.
Even with today's technology, it is critical that growers use directed herbicides in their cotton crop to improve coverage of weeds hiding under the cotton canopy. Precision applications maximizing spray coverage of weeds and minimizing spray contact with cotton, which can cause injury, is critical. Spray fender/cultivator and shield/hood sprayers are commonly used for precision, directed-spray applications.
Drying is one of the oldest methods of preserving food and feedstock. It is simply the removal of moisture from a product, usually by forcing dry air through the material. This publication provides in-depth instruction on how to dry grain and soybeans.
This publication is a comprehensive guide to irrigation methods for tobacco in Georgia.
Proper planting is essential for healthy, vigorous growth of ornamental plants in the landscape. It assures rapid plant establishment by providing a favorable environment for the developing root system. This publication offers step-by-step guidelines that will help you achieve planting success.
Harvest losses can rob you of profit from grain and bean production. Harvest losses of 10 percent or more are not unusual, when they should be in the 2 to 4 percent range. If you do not check losses behind your combine, you have no idea what the losses are and where they occur during harvesting. The following procedure outlines how to measure losses during harvest. It also shows you where the losses occur. The grain or beans saved mean that much more profit saved.