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Peanut Information Network System

Research and Publications

Title | Problem Statement | Objectives | Progress | Publications | Background | Development Benefits | U.S. Benefits | Potential Impacts | Team

Title

Production Efficiency and Market Development of Peanuts and Peanut Products for Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica

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Problem Statement

Peanut is an important secondary crop grown throughout most of the rural portions of Haiti, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. However, little effort has gone into improving production efficiency. In Haiti peanut is grown mainly by low-resource farmers on small hillside farms, often on land deemed unsuited for any of the primary staple crops. Fertilizers or other external inputs are generally not used. Yields are low due to soil fertility, disease, and insect problems, and low genetic potential of domestic varieties. A large portion of the crop is consumed at the farm level. The rest is either traded directly, or converted to oil, paste, or peanut butter. Some are used for the production of candy at the local level. It has been stated that the capital turn over ratio from the processing at the local level ranges from 1.36 for candies to 3.45 for oil production. It is believed that as exports play a lesser role in the Haitian economy, rural households will become more dependent on the processing of local products such as peanuts in order to increase their incomes. Yet very little research has been conducted to determine the role of peanuts in the rural farm budget and the market potential of this crop.

In the Dominican Republic and Jamaica, peanut production is more geared towards commercialization than in Haiti, where a large portion is consumed at the farm level. Efficiency is, however, extremely low by world standards. Peanut yields hover at less than 75 percent of the world average. The poor production efficiency record in Dominican Republic has caused peanut output to fall to one third of the level attained in 1975. Similar consumption and distribution patterns of peanuts exist in Jamaica, but will be treated by other colleagues. However, in these countries peanut is still considered a snack food and its true market potential is unexplored because of its limited use. In this research the role of peanuts in increasing farm revenue will be studied.

Auburn University has a long tradition of systems approaches to management of peanut. Achievements include the AU-Peanuts leaf spot model, that utilizes only a rain gage and weather forecast to monitor the need of peanut leaf spot control, and the degree-day model for lesser corn borer that predicts insect damage to pegs and pods based on average high temperature and days without rain. Researchers at Auburn University are experienced in on-farm and market research in Haiti and other Caribbean and African countries. The techniques used in rural household and market research in Haiti and other Caribbean and African countries will be applied where possible in peanut CRSP research in Haiti, Dominican Republic and Jamaica

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Objectives

1: Evaluate the degree of awareness of the health risks of producers, market participants, and consumers of aflatoxin on humans and animals and behavioral changes in groundnut production, marketing and consumption practices employed to minimize these risks. 
Indicators: 1. About 300 of 400 recruited participants taking part in the work shops each year. 2. Ninety percent return for evaluation each year. 3. There is a progressive movement of individuals (at least 30%) through the perceived behaviorial stage. 4. At the end of the project at least 75% of participants will have moved from pre-contemplation to maintenance of practices. 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

1: Study the production system of peanuts and identify constraints affecting their production and distribution within the various peanut producing and marketing zones in Haiti and Dominican Republic. 
Indicators: 1. Literature review of previous peanut research 2. Research proposal developed with host country scientists 3. Interviewers trained in conducting field surveys 4. Delineate principle zones with potential for peanut production 5. Summary report of available peanut varieties and production technologies 6. Communication of results to outreach agencies and NGO's 7. List of documented constraints to peanut production 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

2: Examine the extent and financial impact of groundnut aflatoxin contamination by areas and by levels of production and consumption. 
Indicators: 1. A completed survey of regions. Primary and secondary data sets on aflatoxin contamination by region. Budgets showing the costs and returns for interventions to reduce aflatoxin contamination by region and production and marketing processes. 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

2: Formulate and implement an adaptive research program using economic, agronomic and sociological criteria to determine the effects of peanut production on farmers' cultural practises, resource allocation and farm household income. 
Indicators: 1. Adaptive research plan 2. Identified farms and producers for carrying out adaptive research plan 3. Trained monitors for adaptive research plan 4. Report on financial competitiveness of peanuts in existing farming systems 5. Communication of results to outreach agencies and NGO's 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

3: Evaluate the economic effects of adoption of improved, indigenous, groundnut, storage-technologies on producers, market participants and consumers of groundnuts. 
Indicators: The evaluation of technologies are completed; a number of local and imported technologies are compared for their effectiveness to reduce the levels of aflatoxin. The best technologies are selected and diffused to the various stakeholders. 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

3: Identify and evaluate the marketing system of peanuts in order to clearly analyse the existing opportunities and constraints that limit crop and how these restrain the development of this crop as a major contributor to agricultural income iin Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 
Indicators: 1. Descriptive report on existing retail and wholesale markets for peanuts 2. Trained marketing interviewers 4. List of marketing opportunities for marketing peanuts 5. Report on market efficiency and effects on farm income 6. Communication of results to outreach agencies and NGO's 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

4: Conduct a Cost/Benefit analysis of the adoption of new technologies, designed to reduce aflatoxin contamination in groundnut storage, in animals and humans, and in market products. 
Indicators: A report on the financial evaluation of at least 5 technologies that reduce aflatoxin levels in storage. Three technologies are evaluated for their economic and socio-cultural appropriateness to producers, market participants and consumers of groundnuts. 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

4: Evaluate the effect of product pricing on consumer acceptance of value added peanut products at local markets, and evaluate consumer reaction of newly developed products in Haiti, DR and Jamaica. 
Indicators: 1. Descriptive report on local peanut products available in the market 2. Trained consumers for product evaluation 3. List of product opportunities for peanuts identified 4. Report on methodology for evaluating consumer acceptance 5. Report on peanut existing pricing strategy and recommendations for revisions 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

5: Evaluate the impact of aflatoxin groundnut contamination reduction on the agricultural economies of Ghana and Benin 
Indicators: A completed report on the financial and economic effects of aflatoxin reduction in groundnut marketing. At least three technologies are evaluated positively by stakeholders, and the tehnologies have positive impacts on the groundnut sectors. 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

5: Examine the levels of technology available for peanut production, harvesting treatment and processing in Jamaica and Haiti, and evaluate the effects of the tested technologies, developed through this research, on peanut production and the agricultural sector. 
Indicators: 1. Technology research summary reports 2. Expanded list of technologies available to farmers and processors 3. List of constraints limiting use of new technology 5. Recommendations for technology adoption 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

6: Evaluate market performance of newly developed products, distributed through local marketing agents in Haiti and Jamaica. 
Indicators: 1. Demand analysis of national and local peanut markets 2. Descriptive report on peanut distribution system 3. Projections for growth in peanut supply and demand 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

12: Training of participants in approprite techniques 
Indicators: 
Estimated Total Objective cost: $

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Progress

1997

The research program got on the way in late January. Contacts were developed with researchers in Haiti. A trip was made to Haiti to discuss research protocol, develop statement of agreements and decide on budgetary procedures. Meetings were held with government officials, USAID personnel, researchers and administrators from CARE, PADF, the National and Quesqeya universities. A joint proposal was developed for the execution of the research effort. Budgets were developed and a method for transferring of funds was put in place. Each of the above collaborating institutions re-pledged their support to this project. Another visit was made in February-March to implement the project. The Central Plateau and South-west areas were chosen to study the production system in Haiti. Interviewers, students from the National and Quesqeya Universities were selected to conduct the interviews. The students were trained and placed on the field in May. Data on the farming system, farmer production and marketing constraints were collected from 500 rural farm households. A joint survey on consumer preference for various forms of peanuts and peanut products was conducted at Auburn University in cooperation with North Carolina A&T University. The survey involved the interview of 550 students, staff and faculty.

A survey of literature was conducted on the production and marketing of peanuts in Haiti. A report was written and being reviewed.

Other Achievements:

1998

The research program got on the way in late January. Contacts were developed with researchers in Haiti. A trip was made to Haiti to discuss research protocol, develop statement of agreements and decide on budgetary procedures. Meetings were held with government officials, USAID personnel, researchers and administrators from CARE, PADF, the National and Quesqeya universities. A joint proposal was developed for the execution of the research effort. Budgets were developed and a method for transferring of funds was put in place. Each of the above collaborating institutions re-pledged their support to this project. Another visit was made in February-March to implement the project. The Central Plateau and South-west areas were chosen to study the production system in Haiti. Interviewers, students from the National and Quesqeya Universities were selected to conduct the interviews. The students were trained and placed on the field in May. Data on the farming system, farmer production and marketing constraints were collected from 500 rural farm households. A joint survey on consumer preference for various forms of peanuts and peanut products was conducted at Auburn University. The survey involved the interview of 550 students, staff and faculty. A survey of literature was conducted on the production and marketing of peanuts in Haiti. A report was written and being reviewed.

Other Achievements:

1999

A survey of 842 peanut farmers and households producing and marketing of peanuts and peanut products was completed. A follow-up survey of a sub-sample of 100 farm households producing peanuts and forty non-producers was also completed. The data were entered into the computer and a number of reports were prepared. It was found that peanuts were mainly produced to obtain cash. Even with abnormally low yields peanuts were still competitive with other crops for the most limiting production factor,land. Farmers sold their crops immediately after harvest, but if farmers were to store their crop up to 6 months after harvest they could double their net returns. The major production constraints in peanut production is low average yield. The major marketing problems are low prices and storage losses.

Though more than 50 percent of farmers felt that peanut production on Haitian hillsides was an environmental hazzard, they said they employed soil conservation practices that would minimize soil loss. The data collected on peanut consumption and marketing from samples of students and staff at Auburn University and North Carolina A&T were analyzed. Reports are being prepared.

Marketing is not the major constraint in the peanut industry in Haiti. Farmers can sell all the peanuts produced. The quantity of peanuts produced in terms of yield of peanuts afffected the marketing outlet. Farmers with high yields prefered to sell to wholesalers even when the prices were lower. Farmers with low yields chose to sell most of their peanuts to retailers. Peanuts compete well with the other drops for the most limiting resource,land. Farmers will continue to grow peanuts even they are aware of the environmental concerns, as long as peanuts contribute significantly to farm income. There were, however, no significant difference between the gross farm income of farmers who produced peanuts and those who did not. Banana production often replaced peanuts in ecological zones suited for their production. Banana producers had the highest level of income.

U.S. consumers were aware of the negative health effects of peanut consumption. Consumers differed by race and age in the consumption of peanuts. Certain peanut products, like peanut butter, were more likely eaten by low inome groups than by average or high income groups. The U.S. peanut industry can use this information in product development and promotion to capture all income classes and age groups.

Other Achievements: I travelled to Ghana to develop linkages with researchers to change the orientation of the project to the economics of production and marketing of peanuts on animal and human health. I worked closely with the Soil Management CRSP to reduced cost and to prepare documents on the effects of peanut production on the environment. A paper on the marketing of peanuts in Haiti was presented at the APRES meeting in Savana, Georgia. A paper on "Peanut Production and Environmental Dilemma for Haitian Farmers was presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Agricultural Economics Association meeting in Trinidad and Tobago.

2000

Data collected in Ghana are being processed. A report will be written at the end of the year. A total of 199 panelist ranging in age from 14 to 78 years participated in a study to evaluate acceptability of important quality attributes of honey roasted and plain peanuts, and flavored mambas (peanut butter)to determine how they could be enhanced to increase acceptability.

The study also determined the buying preferences of Haitian consumers for certain attributes of peanut products, namely form(dry-roasted or honey roasted peanuts; spicy, sweet plain peanut butter), origin (made in Haiti or the U.S.)and price (lowest, most common, highest). The honey-roasted peanuts are quite acceptable, but the appearance (too dry). Overall the plain mamba was the most acceptable in terms of peanut flavor, sweetness, and spiceness. Its appearance was the best, its mouthfeel was accptable to 66% of the panelists but the color is too light. Mamba sucre had the best peanut flavor, mouthfeel, and color. Its appearance was acceptable to 55 % of the panelists, it is a little oily (oil separation). Mamaba pimente was equally acceptable. Price was overwhelmingly the most important attribute in the panel's buying decision, with a relative importance of 68%. Form and origin followed distantly with 18% and 14% relative importance respectively. Dryroasted were prefered on average to honey-roasted, although the strength of preference was not too strong. Hatian peanuts were prefered to U.S. product, but the preference was not strong in the overall panel. Not suprisingly lower price was prefered to higher price.

The study indicates that there is a strong demand for Haitian peanut products and new peanut products in Haiti. Haitian producers of peanuts can use this information for increasing value-added from peanut products. Consumers have shown a preference for the sweet form of mamba, and honey-roasted peanuts. This indicates that the market share for peanut products in Haiti can be increased with minor improvements in the form of peanut products. Haitian consumers of peanuts are ready to pay a price as high as that paid for U.S. products, if the Haitian products have the same attributes.

Other Achievements:

2003

The objective of the second year was to examine the extent and financial impact of groundnut aflatoxin contamination by areas and by levels of production and consumption. The aim was to collect data on the proper post-harvest handling of peanuts in three research areas of Ghana and Benin. A comparative analysis of improved post-harvest handling of peanuts and the traditional methods were to be conducted. Two fields of groundnuts were purchased from farmers in Ghana and three in Benin. Data on harvesting, sorting, storing and processing of traditional handling and that using the improved methods were collected. Samples were taken and analyzed at each of the marketing stages. From these data cost and returns will be evaluated in order to find out the cost effectiveness in employing new techniques to reduce the aflatoxin levels in groundnuts destined for human consumption. The importance of this procedure is to effectively determine the costs and benefit for reducing aflatoxin levels in stored groundnuts for human consumption.

The survey on awareness of aflatoxin was completed. A total of 106 producers, 47 market participants, 49 processors, 48 consumers and 160 administrators were interviewed. The data have been entered into the computer and are being analyzed.

Other Achievements:

2004

Several studies were conducted during the year. The studies on the effects of improved post- harvest handling of grounduts on the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) in groundnuts in Ghana and Benin continued. The groundnuts were harvested, sorted, stored, and shelled. The physical, and economic data were collected. We still have problems analyszing the AF levels in the sampled groundnuts.The data are being analyzed to prepare the report. The data on market participants and administrators of health and agriculture awareness of AF in groundnuts in Ghana and Benin were analyzed. Two papers on the agricultural and health administrators awareness in Ghana,and two on producers awareness of AF in Ghana were prepared and submitted for publication. A report on market participants awareness was prepared. The study on agricultural and health administrators provides useful insuights on the degree of awareness of and knowledge on AF in groundnuts by the health and agricultural administrators in Ghana. The study on producers awareness in Benin revealed that gender, age, and years of experience in farming significantly impact farmers' action regarding groundnutAF reduction in Benin. Male farmers are more likely to be aware of AF problems in groundnuts and feel more susceptible to the problems than their female counterparts. Gender and education seem to be the dominating factors in the perception of barriers to the reduction of AF and are more likely to influence the perceptions of AF reduction of groundnutsin Benin. The storage study in Ghana showed that the various post harvestiing handling methods influenced the levels of AF in groundnuts. The levels of AF in traditional and improved storage techniques were significantly different. The Bulgarian study showed that there was a significant difference in net revenues in the production systems of groundnuts. The also study indicated that yield per acre is positively related to the quantity of phosphate, seeds, technology, mechanized and non-maechanized labor, but negatively rlated to the amounts of seed and technology squared.

In Ghana on work storage and sorting to reduce aflatoxin levels in stored groundnuts continued. Two groundnut fields were purchased at Ejura in the Transitional Agro Climate Zone of Ghana. The Ejura area is a major groundnut producing and consumption area in Ghana. The two fields were 1 km (approx.) apart and both were planted with the groundnut cultivar ‘Chinese’. On each field the desired land required was marked out and subdivided into 180 m2 plots. At harvest the following treatments were imposed on the crop. 1.inverted windrow drying in the field for 1wk followed by stripping and further on mats at KNUST for 3 Wk. 2. Random windrow drying in the field for 1 wk followed by stripping and further drying on mats at KNUST for 3wk. 3. Stripping immediately at harvest followed by drying on mats at KNUST for 4 weeks. 4. Stripping immediately at harvest and storage in interlaced polypropylene sacks for 4 weeks. At harvest yield per plot was obtained and converted to kg/ha. The soil moisture content of each plot in the field was gravimetrically determined. Kernel moisture content for each treatment was similary determined at harvest. Fungi colonizing the fresh nuts at harvest were also determined by plating representative kernel samples on chloramphenicol potato - dextrose agar (CPDA). Fresh kernel samples were also kept in a freezer for aflatoxin analysis. During drying, kernel moisture content was determined at 1, 3 and 4 wk. At 4 wk the pods were sorted and percent damaged ones estimated. Kernel samples were assayed for fungi. Samples were also kept in freezer for aflatoxin analysis. Healthy pods from the same treatment were bulked and divided into two 12 kg (approx.) lots, bagged and tightly sealed. One of the bags was treated with powder of Syzigium aromaticum cloves added at 1 % (wt: wt). Bags with pods receiving the Syzigium powder treatment were stored in pallets in a clean room. Untreated pods were stored on the floor in a room where no sanitary precautions were taken. At the end of 4 months, storage pod damage was assessed and shelled. Extent of kernel damage/ mouldiness and aflatoxin level was also determined after sorting shelled nut. Moisture content of the kernel was determined. Shelled heathly nuts, treated and untreated with the Syzigium powder, will again be stored for a further 2 months in bags and examined for moisture levels, Aflatoxin contamination, insect infestation and kernel mouldiness. The cost of implementing each of the above aflatoxin/ mouldiness control measures was be estimated using current labour costs in Ghana.

Moisture content of field 1 was 5.23 % and soil from field 2, 8.99 % (Table 1). Total fresh pod yield on field 1 is 925 kg /ha and field 2, 1851.85 kg/ha. Moisture content of kernel of field 1 averaged 37.12% and that of field 2 averaged 43.14% at harvest (fig 1). Drying on field by both inverted and random windrowing resulted in moisture content drop to 11% and 10% respectively after 1 week. These values were not significantly different from each other but were higher than the 6 %, value obtained when the pods were immediately stripped and dried at home for 1 week. In field 2 similar trends were obtained. The moisture content of kernels from the three treatment (x –y%) was taken when the pods were dried for 3 and 4 weeks of sun drying (fig 1). Moisture content of kernel from undried pods remained high during the period (38.1%- 36.17%) for field 1 and 40.03% - 32.5% fig1. The cost of harvesting/windrow (inverted and random) drying for 1 wk on the field and stripping were the same. Each activity cost 556,000 /ha). However, harvesting, immediately stripping and drying at home on mats for 1 wk cost additional 9,460/100kg pod to the two activities (harvesting/windrow and stripping). Further drying down of the pods for 3 weeks at home to very low moisture of around 3-4 % cost extra 20,380/100kg pods per treatment. The groundnuts were stored for 3 months on farmers and improved conditions. The improved conditions showed significant reduction in moldiness. The levels of aflatoxins are yet to be measured. A survey was conducted to determine frequency of groundnut consumption and levels of consumption. The survey was conducted in joint collaboration with UAB. The survey will also provide information on consumption levels, frequency of groundnut consumption, levels of aflatoxins in the urine and regional health status. The second year of data on process of change of producers, market participants, and consumers were collected. The data were entere in the computer using SPSS software package. Tha data on administrators, producers, market participants and consumers were analyzed. Pereliminary reports were written and two papers were presented at the APRES meetings. In Benin the storage and sorting experiments continued. Data on sorting, cost of sorting and levels of moldiness were determined in five storage facilities on farmers fields. The data will be processed soon. Data on peanut production waere collected for Bulgarioa. the data were analyzed and a production function was developed. The cost and returns for growing peanuts were also estimated. The data showed that peanut production in Bulgaria was competitive.

Other Achievements: Bulgaria

Economic and financial analysis of growing peanuts in Bulgaria

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the costs and returns of growing peanuts in Bulgaria. Peanuts are grown in a large number of regions (18) in Bulgaria with the most being produced in the region of D.Voden, with 19.9% of the area. Konush was responsible for 11.18 % of the area in production, followed by Asenovgrad with 8.71% , D. Izvor 7.7%, Karadzhovo with 7.31% and Kozanovo 7.26%. Peanuts are produced on various farm sizes. The sizes range from 1 to 401 dka (1 dka is approximately 0.10 acre). The larger farms generate the largest total sales. The largest gross revenue does necessarily mean the largest net revenue. Net revenues seem to be affected by total costs The yields seem to vary around regions. The farms that are more profitable are the smallest ones which range in size from 1 to 26 dka. The farms showing the least net profits are those ranging in sizes from 51 to 76 dka.

In this study, we develop a production function to determine the factors that affect yield of peanuts in Bulgaria, and determine how changes in these factors will affect production. We conducted a survey of 202 farmers in Bulgaria in 2002. Farm and demographic data were collected from the farm families operating the farm. EXEL and SAS software were used to analyze the data. A production function was developed where yield per acre was expressed as a function of, capital investment and variable Inputs, fertilizer, pesticides, seeds, technology, and labor. A quadratic functional form was used. The R2 was 0.38 which means that 38 percent of the variation in yield is explained by the various factors. Results show that yield per acre is positively related the quantity of phosphate, seeds, technology, mechanized and non-mechanized labor, but negatively related to the amount of seeds, technology squared.

2005

GHANA

The studies in Ghana showed important findings. The studies showed that the most important factor in reducing the incidence of AF in peanuts was the reduction of the moisture levels below 12%. The sorting cost was high and may not be cost effective if the peanuts are thoroughly dried before storage. This finding is important to Agriculturalists in making recommendations on post-harvest handling of peanuts. The cost of post harvest handling and the incidence of AF can be reduced by simply proper drying.

BENIN

The studies in Benin showed that AF is found at the various stages of marketing. The levels of AF at each marketing stage were not related to the stage. The incidence of AF is highest at the storage level. There were no significant differences in the levels of AF by region. The significance of the findings indicates to decision makers that the focus of reducing the incidence of AF should be at the storage level.

BULGARIA The analysis for Bulgaria generated important results that policy makers can use to improve peanut production in Bulgaria. The results show that the Bulgarian administrators can concentrate on farm yield improvement by simply manipulating internal factors on the farm. Farm efficiency can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of seeds used per acre.

GHANA

The studies in Ghana showed important findings. The studies showed that the most important factor in reducing the incidence of AF in peanuts was the reduction of the moisture levels below 12%. The sorting cost was high and may not be cost effective if the peanuts are thoroughly dried before storage. This finding is important to Agriculturalists in making recommendations on post-harvest handling of peanuts. The cost of post harvest handling and the incidence of AF can be reduced by simply proper drying.

BENIN

The studies in Benin showed that AF is found at the various stages of marketing. The levels of AF at each marketing stage were not related to the stage. The incidence of AF is highest at the storage level. There were no significant differences in the levels of AF by region. The significance of the findings indicates to decision makers that the focus of reducing the incidence of AF should be at the storage level.

BULGARIA The analysis for Bulgaria generated important results that policy makers can use to improve peanut production in Bulgaria. The results show that the Bulgarian administrators can concentrate on farm yield improvement by simply manipulating internal factors on the farm. Farm efficiency can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of seeds used per acre.

Other Achievements:

2006

Project Summary

Ghana

We conducted a survey in the northern, central and southern regions of Ghana. The goal was to obtain information on the average quantity of groundnuts consumed per individual per day and the level of aflatoxin (AF) contamination in the groundnuts. Information on market participants to sort their groundnuts along the marketing chain, and the levels of AF found in the groundnuts and corn consumed per individual per day were estimated. This information will provide us with the basis to evaluate the impact of AF contamination on the Ghanaian groundnut sector.We analyzed data and prepared a paper on comsumers choice of groundnuts and the effects of AF of consumer choice of groundnuts. The data serve as the base information for conducting the cost benefit analysis of adopting of management and sanitary practices to reduce the levls of AF in groundnuts in Ghana.

Benin

We worked on completing papers from previous surveys. Research on the effects on the marketing of groundnuts in Benin continued. We examined the levels of AF in the marketing channel in Benin. We took random samples of groundnuts marketed to determine the effects of AF on the marketing outcome. The determination of AF in the groundnuts consumed will help us evaluate the economic and health effects of AF on the groundnut industry and the economy of Benin.

Bulgaria

We analyzed the data we received from Bulgaria and so far we have sent out two papers for publication and we are in the process of submitting another two for publication. The economic report of Bulgaria will be presented under the New Mexico project, NMX 53.

Achievement Significance- AU 30:

We worked with the scientists project UAB 56 from the University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB) to obtain the levels of AF found on groundnuts and corn consumed and in human urine after a meal which included groundnuts in Ghana. The objective was to correlate the levels of AF in urine with that in the groundnuts and corn consumed. We surveyed a total of 1242 households in nine regions. We collected 304 household samples of maize at the household level and 83 at the market level. We collected 156 samples of groundnuts at the household level and 69 samples at the markets. So far we tested 138 samples of corn to determine AF levels and we have 87 left to be tested. We also tested 123 samples of corn dough. We tested 627 samples of urine of a total of 1233 samples. This information will help us to evaluate the effects of AF on the groundnut and agricultural sectors. A sample of 231 observations was collected in Benin. The collected data consisted of AF levels in parts per billion (ppb). The samples were taken across five market participants along the marketing channel. The market participants included 20 consumers, 57 producers, 39 individuals who were involved in storage, 60 processors, 42 wholesalers and retailers. The levels of AF found in the sampled groundnuts were divided into less than 15 parts per billion, between 15 and 20 ppb and above 20 ppb. SAS was used to analyze the data. All the groundnuts analyzed at the consumer level had less than 15 ppb of AF. About 96.5% of the groundnuts at the producer level had less than 15ppb while 3.5% had more than 20ppb. At the storage level 87% of the peanuts had less than 15ppb, 2.6% had between 15 and 20ppb and 10.3% had levels greater than 20ppb. At the processor level 88.3% had less than 15ppb, 1.67% had between 15 and 20ppb, and 10.0% had levels greater than 20ppb. At the wholesalers and retailers levels 100% had less than 15ppb. Hence it would seem that most of the groundnuts contaminated above 20ppb were at the storage and processing levels. The levels of AF ranged from 0 to 930ppb. A test of concordance called Gamma was performed on each group. This measured an increasing or decreasing relationship with respect to the importance of the levels of AF (1), (2) or (3). The analysis gave an idea of the linear relationship between the ordinal variables. Here Gamma=0.0671: that is almost no association. Level tends to be independent with the order of the category that has been chosen.

Our work during 2005-2006 represents several significant achievements listed as follows. 1. Our work on the correlation of AF in foods (particularly groundnuts and corn) and the levels of AF in urine will provide us with useful information in estimating the effects of groundnut AF on the industry and the Ghanaian population. The study was conducted throughout Ghana and the information gathered will help us evaluate the areas where AF from groundnut consumption could be a potential economic and health threat. The data set is extensive and will provide information for sector studies. We have collaborated with researchers from UAB (Project UAB 56) and Texas A&M (Project TAM 50) on the effects of AF on human health. One paper on the "Association between AF levels, health characteristics, liver functions, hepatitis and malaria infections in Ghanaians" has been submitted to the Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. The paper is unique in that it considers a broad range of health parameters and the effects of chronic AF exposure on a selected population. 2. A paper on the factors influencing consumption decision at various rung of the marketing chain generates useful information on consumption decision along the marketing chain and whether knowledge of the negative effects of AF affect consumption of groundnuts. 3. We have written a paper on factors that influence sorting of peanuts along the marketing chain. This paper was submitted to Peanut Science. This paper provides useful information on why different market participants choose or do not choose to sort groundnuts before use at various rungs of the marketing chain. 4. We have prepared a manuscript which shows the levels of contamination of AF at different marketing stages in Ghana. We have also shown the effects of AF levels at this stages on the possibilities of international trade of groundnuts from Benin.

Other Achievements: We conducted a literature review on the effects of AF on the U.S. peanut industry. We examined the likely effects of groundnut AF contamination on the sale of groundnuts. We examined who is responsible to pay for damages related to groundnuts contamination and the losses incurred. We try to relate current of AF contamination in the US to our projects in Benin and Ghana. The costs and benefits of reducing the levels of AF in groundnuts will be evaluated using similar methods adopted in the US. Impact Project results show that levels of contamination of AF in Ghana and Benin may be more than that designated safe for human use by the FDA and WHO. The levels of AF in groundnuts may have serious health and economic consequences if consumed. The level of contamination of AF beyond that which is considered acceptable for humans may be more prevalent at the processing and storage levels in Benin. Peanuts are produced than less than efficient levels in Bulgaria.

2007

Ghana The peanut data collected during the period 2002 and 2004 were analyzed to relate the socio-economic variables and the levels of aflatoxin in two basic staples, peanut and maize. The purpose was to determine a threshold level where households were more prone to be affected by ingested aflatoxin contaminated peanut. Using multivariate recursive modeling we evaluated the relationship between aflatoxin levels, food consumption and nutrient content in Ghana. The cost of consuming aflatoxin tainted peanut over time was examined. The report shows that location seems to be a factor influencing the amount of aflatoxin ingested peanut. The amount of spoilt food and the number of sick days the consumer reported were also related to alfatoxin ingested peanut. The reports on sorting of peanut was sent to Peanut Science and peanut consumption frequency was accepted by International Journal of Consumer studies. Benin The effect of aflatoxin contamination on the marketing of peanut was analyzed. The marketing stage and region most likely to be affected by aflatoxin contaminated peanut was investigated. Aflatoxin contamination was most prevalent at the storage and processing levels. Using trained technicians to detect aflatoxin contaminated nuts, and manual sorting we detected with assurance 0.89 percent of spoilt nuts when the standard is set at 4ppb, and 93 percent for 20ppb, 94 percent for 30ppb and 96 percent for 100ppb. The use of moldy nuts as the sign for detecting levels of aflatoxin above the European Standard of 4ppb was 100 percent. The financial cost of aflatoxin contamination to the Benin peanut industry was estimated at $6.3m for 2002 to $5.2m for 2004. When the standard of peanut acceptability was set at 4ppb the cost of making an error in the identification of aflatoxin contamination in peanut ranged from U.S. $5.5m to $4.4m for the Benin peanut industry. We estimated that if individuals used hand sorting of peanuts and they were to make errors in detecting aflatoxin contaminated nuts when the peanut is truly contaminated with aflatoxin the Benin consumer would be ingesting 1.72kg/capita of aflatoxin contaminated peanut at a standard set at 4ppb and 0.98kg/capita at a standard set at 20ppb.

Bulgaria We completed the data analysis for Bulgaria. Four papers were prepared. We examined peanut efficiency production, risks associated with peanut efficiency, costs and returns of producing peanut, and financial and physical factors affecting peanut production and marketing in Bulgaria. One paper has been accepted for publication by the journal Agricultural Economic Review, one has been returned for rewrite and review by the Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, one is under review by the Central European Journal of Agriculture and the last one is still in revision.

Ghana

We showed in the Ghana study that not only the socio-economic variables were important in examining the levels of aflatoxin contamination of peanut but peanut contamination was prevalent at all stages of marketing. The levels of contamination at the processor, storage and market vendor levels were more serious than at the farmer level. This indicates that any solution to resolve the aflatoxin problem should be conducted at the post harvest handling stage. The results showed that regional differences existed in peanut aflatoxin contamination. The amount of food the individual reported throwing p=0.05 and the income were factors determining the levels of contamination of alfatoxin at the household level.

Benin The study showed that by using a Binomial Distribution and a probability density function we are able to estimate the amount of peanut contamination within a given quantity of peanuts using the sample level contamination. Hence for various standards (European, American, WHO, and for animals) we can determine the probability of obtaining various levels of aflatoxin within a population. Hence we are able to estimate the losses that will occur if industries attempt to sell or trade peanut within certain markets with minimum requirements for traded peanut. The study also showed graphically the distribution of aflatoxin contaminated peanuts for various standards (Figure 1). Hence we were able to calculate the total losses to Benin peanut sector if attempts are made to trade peanut at the various markets given the stringent requirements set at those markets. In the European market the estimated loss was estimated at $6.2m (Table 1). This would mean that peanut trade in Benin would not be sustainable even if 90 percent of the contaminated peanut was removed through manual sorting. The cost of labor would prohibit manual sorting. The electronic sorter which is more technically efficient in terms of speed of removal of contaminated peanut poses more risks in terms of reducing the level of contamination. The electronic sorter is able to identify only about 72 percent of the contaminated nuts manual trained labor is able to detect 89 percent of the contaminated nuts under market restriction of 4ppb. Bulgaria

The data analysis was completed and the papers were written. Drs. Ligeon, Curtis M. Jolly, and Naveem Pupala travelled to Bulgaria where we presented the final reports in July. We presented two reports on the economic and financial effects of peanut production in Bulgaria. The results of the study showed that peanut production is a profitable and feasible venture for Bulgarian agricultural production. Even with small areas planted peanut production generates significant levels of revenues to Bulgarian farmers. Hence, peanut is a likely crop that may find a market niche in Bulgaria and contribute to export earnings. There were risks associated with peanut production, but most farmers had a greater than 50% chance of having positive net returns or profitability index greater than one. The chances of having a profitability index greater than one was not associated to costs or size of farm. Table1: Losses that may incur based on various international compliance by the Benin peanut industry

Other Achievements: We attempted to develop a model that incorporates socioeconomic variables with health variables with consumption variables to determine the joint role played by the liver transport and storage factors when combined with other health variables in determining the global effects of aflatoxin on Ghanaian health. In Benin we evaluated the individuals’ perception of their health and the levels of aflatoxin consumed in their groundnut. We found that albumin levels were associated with the levels of aflatoxin ingested. The other socio-economic variables had no effect on the individuals, perception. In Benin we examined market participants’ willingness to pay for sorted nuts. Results indicated that market participants were willing to pay up to 10% in price for a nut that was though to be more uniform and with less contamination.

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Publications

CM Jolly; MJ Hinds; P Lindo; C Ligeon; H Weiss: Determinants of Boiled Peanuts Consumption in Two Southern States in the U.S. 
Journal of Peanut Science [Publication type: JOURNAL] Record 1855
Hinds, M, A H Jackson, and C M Jolly: 1997 Potential for Increased Utilization of Peanuts in value added products. 
Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting, Annual Peanut Research and Education Society, Proceedings. [Publication type: JOURNAL] Record 1603
I. Amoako-Attah, R.T. Awuah, K.A. Kpodo, S.C. Fialor, C.M. Jolly: 2007 Cost effectiveness of selected post harvest pod handling techniques against damage, mouldiness and aflatoxin contamination of shelled groundnut in Ghana 
Journal of Science and Technology [Publication type: JOURNAL] Record 2488
Jolly, C, M E Prophete and M Blemur: 1997 Bibliography sur la production et la commercialization des arachides. 
CRDA, Haiti [Publication type: JOURNAL] Record 1602

 

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Background

Peanuts are responsible, on paper, for only a small percentage of Haiti's agricultural GDP, but their contribution to the farming system in terms of improvement to soil fertility, the household diet and animal production remains unmeasured. Peanuts are produced as a secondary crop to the other major crops such as corn, sorghum and bananas. It is believed that output of this crop will escalate once its true competitive position is evalauted and farmers account for its total contribution to the farming system and the household budget. Production will further increase as market opportunities expand for the various value added products to be tested in this research. A market study conducted by the SECID/Auburn team in the northern section of Haiti has shown that the production and marketing of peanuts generate a significant amount of revenue to the farming sector.

In Dominican Republic production system of peanuts is similar to that practiced in Haiti, but the farm sizes are larger and the output is geared for the local markets. Peanuts are eaten in various forms and the demand for the product will increase as demand shifts outward with increased population, income and technological progress in processing which reduces prices and hence consumers' real income.

Considerable work has been done in the selection of peanuts for the Jamaican farmers. Production possibilities are vast, but the market demand for the products has not increased drastically as expected because of the relative limited number of ways in which this crop is consumed. If new products are placed at consumers disposal this will eventually lead to market expansion and the growth of this enterprise. In this research the production, transformation and processing of peanuts will be examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. In Haiti and the Dominican Republic, the production, marketing aspects will be studied in detail. In Haiti and Jamaica the marketing, product development and technology assessment for processing will also be researched.

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Development Benefits

Ghanaians, Citizens of Benin, and West Africans in general, produce large quantities of peanuts which contribute largely to the protein supply in their daily diet. Peanuts are also used in their poultry and livestock industries. According to researchers at the KNUST and Food Science Institute, about 37 percent of peanuts sampled were contaminated with aflatoxin. They also stated that aflatoxin levels can be reduced by proper selection and storage techniques. In the neighboring country of Nigeria, it was found that aflatoxin caused reduced growth rate in animals, reduced feed efficiency, decreased egg production, and poorer carcass quality in poultry (Aletor 1991). Okaeme (1987) computed that each time there is an outbreak of aflatoxicosis laying guineahens stop laying and take 8-10 weeks to return to normal laying capacity. Though there are no animal studies cited on Ghana, the conditions must be the same, and information generated on peanut storage that reduce aflatoxin levels will be of extreme importance to the Ghanaian poultry industry. Collaborative research between the AU, KNUSTand OBEPAB will attempt to evauate the risks associated to consumption of aflatoxin contaminated peanuts. The cost of reducing such contamination will provide useful information to the Ghanaian and Benin food industries and public. Ghanian researchers have realized the extent of the problem and are currently placing empasis on reducing the prevalence aflatoxicosis. Large quantities of groundnuts form part of the daily diet of Benin consumers. The groundnuts are eaten as part of main dishes as well as snack foods. Groundnuts are also considered as an alternative export crop in Benin. Knowledge of the level of contamination in groundnuts will be of interest to producers of groundnuts, exporters andd policy makers.

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U.S. Benefits

Aflatoxin is a major problem facing the U.S. peanut producers and consumers. It is considered to be an unavoidable naturally occurring contaminant of peanuts in particular and efforts to restrict exposure to this substance have been made by governmental agencies and the peanut industry. A survey of contemporary literature reveals an increasing wave of aflatoxin contamination of feed and feedstuffs and consequent poisoning of large numbers of animals especially poultry. The U.S. exports large quantities of peanut and peanut meal to many areas of the world; and though products exported from the U.S. meet the minimum WHO/FAO standard, there is always the drive to reduce the level of aflatoxin in human and animal feed. A number of methods have been tried, but still there is the need to seek more cost effective means of reducing aflatoxin contamination. A number of improved storage techniques have been tried, but have not been adopted by farmers and peanut handlers. In this project the cost effectiveness of indigenous technology designed to reduce aflatoxin levels in stored peanuts developed in Ghana and Benin will be evaluated. Information generated will be of definite interest to U.S. peanut producers and millers. Information gathered on the levels of contamination of aflatoxin in humans and animals will be of interest to participants of the peanut industry, health professionals and policy makers. We hope to collaborate with the Minority for Internation Research Trainning (MIRT) at UAB. The coordinator will place a minority graduate student with the CRSP project. This study will generate considerable information and the knowledge gained will be valuable to the U.S. peanut industry.

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Potential Impacts

Significance of the Results The results showed that Agricultural and Health Professionals and market participants are unaware of the seriousness of groundnut AF contamination in Ghana and they are more likely influenced to change behavior in handling groundnut from the benefits derived in producing and marketing a high quality groundnut. The farmers and market participants in Benin were also not aware of the seriousness of AF contamination. There was some difference in the levels of AF contamination in Ghana and Benin and the highest levels of contamination were at the storage and processing levels. We could reduce AF contamination to an acceptable level by all standards (European, US, WHO) by reducing moisture after storage to less than 12 % and proper storage. Traditional sorting of groundnut was costly but efficient in reducing AF contamination. Electronic sorters were efficient in throughput and less costly to but were less efficient than traditional hand sorting in detection of AF contaminated groundnut.

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Team

Team Members' Biodata
PI : Curtis Jolly 
Dept. of Ag. Econ
Auburn University 
Dept. of Agric. Econ., 
Auburn AL 31443
jollycm@auburn.edu
Work: (334) 844-5583
Graduated from Louisiana State University in 1980
Research Focus and Accomplishments
He has been active in grant writing and has been the Principal investigator on the Peanut Collaborative Research Program, the Soil Conservation Collaborative Research program and numerous other research, teaching and development projects. He has concentrated his peanut CRSP research on the effects of aflatoxin on the marketing of peanuts in Ghana and Benin. He has worked in the area of international trade and food safety. He has presented papers on his work, chaired sessions and attended meetings nationally and internationally in countries such as Australia, Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. In 2004, he was invited as the featured speaker to talk on ˜Food Safety and Caribbean U.S. Agricultural Trade" at The Caribbean Academy of Sciences in Trinidad and Tobago.
International Experience
Professor Jolly has a strong background in international agriculture and has worked on USAID and World Bank projects in over 15 African and Caribbean countries on long and short term assignments. He worked as a Farming Systems and Macro-Economist, and Advisor to the Director of the Agricultural Research Institute in Senegal for three years, and was also Advisor and Farming Systems Economist at the Institute of Rural Economy in Mali, West Africa. He was inducted as a member of the Gamma Sigma Delta in 1977. He has worked on Peanut CRSP projects in Haiti, Ghana, Benin and Bulgaria.
Relevant Publications
1.Colyer, D., P. L. Kennedy, W. Amponsah, S. Fletcher, and C. M. Jolly, edit., Competition in Agriculture: The United States in the World Market. Haworth Press, New York, 2000, 358, pp.

2. Jolly, C. M., M. J. Hinds, P. Lindo, C. Ligeon, and H. Weis, Consumers Acceptance of Peanut Butter and Products Containing Peanut Butter in two Southeastern States in the U.S. Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing, vol. 17.(2) (2005) range:87-105.

3.Jolly, C., K.Y. Jefferson-Moore, and G. Traxler, Consequences of Biotechnology Policy for Competitiveness and Trade of Southern U.S. Agriculture, Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 37,2 (2005):393-407.

4.Nelson, R. G., C. M. Jolly, M. J. Hinds, Y. Donis and E. Prophete, Conjoint Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Roasted Peanut Products in Haiti, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29, 3, (2005):208-215.

5.Nelson, R. G., C. M. Jolly, M. J. Hinds, Y. Donis, and E. Prophete. Conjoint Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Peanut Butter (Mamba) Products in Haiti: A Conjoint Analysis, Peanut Science (2003):30:99-103.

6.Hinds, M. J, C. M. Jolly, R. G. Nelson, Y. Donis and E. Prophete. Comparative Study of Properties and Acceptability of Haitian and U. S. Honey-Roasted Peanuts, International Journal of Consumer

Professional History
Assistant professor Auburn University 1980 to 1987 Asociate Professor 1987 to 1998 Professor from 1999 to present Interim-chair and chair from 2004 to present. Curtis M. Jolly is a professor and interim chair of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology at Auburn University. He works in the area of Economic Development and International Trade and the Economics of Aquaculture, and developed the course on the Economics of Aquaculture. Dr. Curtis Jolly has served in several positions, and has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Auburn University Credit Union, Member of the Auburn University Faculty Senate, President's Strategic Planning Committee, the Promotion and Tenure Committee, Chair of the Committee for Persons with Disabilities, Chair of the Black Faculty Caucus, Member of the International Committee of the American Agricultural Economics Association, Member of the Public relations Committee of the American Peanut Research and Education Society, U.S. Representative of the Caribbean Agricultural Economics Association, and several other Associations.
Collaborators
Collaborator : Emmanuel Prophete 
Centre de Recherche et Documentation Agricole (CRDA) 
P.O. Box 2363 
Port-au-Prince
eprophete@hotmail.com
Work: (38) 4784

 

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