Average nut quality of test trees 2002-2013.
|Cultivar||Yield||#Nuts/lb.||%Kernal||Cluster Size||Harvest Date|
|lbs./tree/year||(50% shuck split)|
Average pest resistance of test cultivars 2002-2012.
|Cultivar||Leaf ScabZ||Nut ScabY||Black Aphid DamageX||Sooty Mold BuildupW|
|Avg. (worst)V||Avg. (worst)||Avg. (worst)||Avg. (worst)|
|Zinner||1.4 (3.2)||1.3 (3.0)||2.2 (3.7)||1.1 (2.0)|
|Desirable||2.2 (4.0)||2.9 (5.0)||1.7 (2.7)||1.1 (2.0)|
|Stuart||1.4 (2.8)||1.5 (3.5)||2.3 (3.8)||1.1 (2.0)|
- Z 1=No scab, 2= Few stray spots, 3=Several spots with expanding lesions, 4=Stem scab or defoliation.
- Y 1=No scab, 2=Few stray spots, 3=Obvious scab but no quality loss (0-10%), 4=10-50% shuck coverage, 5=50-100% covered, nut drop.
- X 1=No damage, 2=Light spotting, less than 25% leaves affected, 3=Moderate spotting, 25-75% leaves, 4=Heavy spotting, >75% leaves affected, some leaves completely yellow.
- W 1=None, 2=Light, some black on few leaves, 3=moderate, black on most leaves, 4=Heavy, black flakes on leaves and stems.
- V Average score over all years and average of worst year for each trait.
Average yield (pounds nuts per tree) of test cultivars each year from planting in 2002.
Seedling from Baldwin County, Alabama.
'Zinner' was planted in our orchards in 2002 and bore its first crop in 2005. In the last few years this cultivar has become my favorite for overall nut quality. It produces a good sized nut with a beautiful golden color. Nut size os 'Zinner' is the same as 'Stuart', but quality is much better. The shell is thin, but not so much so that suture split is a problem as in 'Cherryle'. So far, the kernels have been very well developed. Yields have been very similar to 'Stuart', although kernel yield would be much higher than 'Stuart' because the % kernel is much higher in 'Zinner'. While young trees are quite vigorous, this is not a precocious variety. Through year 12 yields have been steadily increasing with no signs of alternation.
Zinner' has a medium level of scab resistance, and I would rate it as similar to cultivars such as 'Caddo' and 'Oconee'. I would expect with a good spray program scab will be controlled easily. In the heavy rainfall year of 2013, trees had moderate levels of scab whereas 'Desirable' had heavy scab and 'Stuart' was similar to 'Zinner'.
So far, the Achilles heal of this cultivar has been black aphid susceptibility. This cultivar is definitely a preferred cultivar, and damage was bad in 2009, although nut quality was not lowered and yield was good in 2010. Like other susceptible cultivars ('Sumner', 'Oconee', 'Caddo') this cultivar will need to be monitored and treated for this pest. For the first time in 2013 we noticed drop from water split after a heavy rain in August. Despite this drop, yields were good and similar to 'Stuart' in 2013.
Right now I recommend this cultivar for trial until we know a little more about mature tree productivity. Yields have been very similar to 'Desirable' with not much alternation at this point. Growers might wish to plant this cultivar a little tighter than normal because tree growth is very upright, similar to 'Stuart'. All in all, tree performance has been very similar to 'Stuart' with a much better quality nut. The performance of this cultivar seems to be similar to other cultivars that have been successful in the Southeast. Nurseries are obtaining some wood of this cultivar and it should become available for trial in the near future.
'Zinner' is a type II (protogynous) cultivar, it would be pollinated by 'Caddo', 'Cape Fear', 'Creek', 'Desirable', 'Gafford', 'Mandan', 'Pawnee', and 'Oconee'.